Identifying predatory or pseudo-journals and conferences

What are predatory/pseudo-journals and conferences?

How prevalent are predatory/pseudo-journals and conferences?

How can you detect probable predatory/pseudo-journals and conferences?

Think. Check. Submit. is an international cross-industry initiative to help researchers identify trusted journals and publishers. Go to their website for more resources and a step-by-step checklist.

Think. Check. Attend. is a sister initiative to Think. Check. Submit. The website has resources on and a checklist to help researchers identify whether conferences are legitimate venues to attend or present research. 

What might be the consequences of submitting to a predatory or pseudo-journal?

References relating to predatory journals and conferences

Predatory journals - research and Information

Abalkina, A. (2021). Detecting a network of hijacked journals by its archive. Scientometrics126(8), 7123–7148.

‌Barker, T. H., Pollock, D., Stone, J. C., Klugar, M., Scott, A. M., Stern, C., Wiechula, R., Shamseer, L., Aromataris, E., Ross‐White, A., & Munn, Z. (2023). How should we handle predatory journals in evidence synthesis? A descriptive survey‐based cross‐sectional study of evidence synthesis experts. Research Synthesis Methods.

Björk, B.-C., Kanto-Karvonen, S., & Harviainen, J. T. (2020). How Frequently Are Articles in Predatory Open Access Journals Cited. Publications8(2), 17.

Bohannon, J. (2013). Who’s Afraid of Peer Review? Science, 342(6154), pp.60–65. doi:10.1126/science.2013.342.6154.342_60.

Centre for Journalology. (n.d.). Centre for Journalology.

Clark, A. M., & Thompson, D. R. (2016). Five (bad) reasons to publish your research in predatory journals. Journal of Advanced Nursing73(11), 2499–2501.

Combatting Predatory Academic Journals and Conferences Learn more about IAP Combatting Predatory Academic Journals and Conferences. (n.d.).

Demonstrating the Advantage of Publishing Open Access with Wiley. (n.d.). Retrieved January 18, 2023, from

Elmore, S. A., & Weston, E. H. (2020). Predatory Journals: What They Are and How to Avoid Them. Toxicologic Pathology48(4), 019262332092020.

‌Else, H. (2022). Hijacked-journal tracker helps researchers to spot scam websites. Nature.

‌Grudniewicz, A., Moher, D., Cobey, K. D., Bryson, G. L., Cukier, S., Allen, K., Ardern, C., Balcom, L., Barros, T., Berger, M., Ciro, J. B., Cugusi, L., Donaldson, M. R., Egger, M., Graham, I. D., Hodgkinson, M., Khan, K. M., Mabizela, M., Manca, A., & Milzow, K. (2019). Predatory journals: no definition, no defence. Nature576(7786), 210–212.

Megwalu, A. (n.d.). SJSU Research Guides: Predatory Journals & Questionable Conferences: Withdrawing from Predatory Journals. Retrieved January 18, 2023, from

Memon, A. R. (2018). How to respond to and what to do for papers published in predatory journals? Science Editing5(2), 146–149.

Oreskes, N. (2022). Predatory Journals That Publish Shoddy Research Put People’s Lives at Risk. Scientific American.

Shamseer, L., Moher, D., Maduekwe, O., Turner, L., Barbour, V., Burch, R., Clark, J., Galipeau, J., Roberts, J., & Shea, B. J. (2017). Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? A cross-sectional comparison. BMC Medicine15(1).

Singh Chawla, D. (2020). Predatory-journal papers have little scientific impact. Nature.

Systematic reviews in Trip and some unintended consequences. (2022, December 15). Trip Database Blog.

There is no black and white definition of predatory publishing. (2020, May 13). Impact of Social Sciences.


Think. Check. Submit. (n.d.).

DOAJ. (2019). Directory of Open Access Journals.

Ulrichsweb. (n.d.).

‌The Retraction Watch Hijacked Journal Checker. (2022, May 30). Retraction Watch.

List of preprint servers: policies and practices across platforms. (n.d.). ASAPbio.

Predatory conferences - research and Information

Ali, M. (2021). Predatory journals and conferences: Analysis of invitation emails from a single clinician-scientist’s inbox. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology69(12), 3389.

Brezgov, S. (2019, June 7). Proposed Criteria for Identifying Predatory Conferences. Scholarly Open Access 2022.

Stoye E. (2018 August 6). Predatory conference scammers are getting smarter. Chemistry World.

Warden, A. M., Soteropulos, C. E., Eftekari, S. C., Nicksic, P. J., Dingle, A. M., & Poore, S. O. (2022). To Decline or Accept. Annals of Plastic Surgery89(1), 8–16.

What to Do About Fake and Predatory Conferences. (2019, October 1). PCMA.‌


Think Check Attend -. Think Check Attend. Retrieved January 18, 2023, from