Cochrane Reviews and Protocols related to Complementary Medicine

Here is a list, in alphabetical order, of the reviews and protocols that we have assessed as related to complementary or integrative medicine, which are currently available in the Cochrane Library.

 

Cochrane complementary medicine-related reviews as of June 30, 2022

1. Acanthopanax for acute ischaemic stroke.

2. Acetyl‐l‐carnitine for dementia.

3. Acetyl‐L‐carnitine for patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

4. Acetyl‐L‐carnitine for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

5. Active mind‐body movement therapies as an adjunct to or in comparison with pulmonary rehabilitation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

6. Acupuncture and acupressure for premenstrual syndrome.

7. Acupuncture and assisted reproductive technology.

8. Acupuncture and dry‐needling for low back pain.

9. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

10. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation.

11. Acupuncture and related interventions for symptoms of chronic kidney disease.

12. Acupuncture and related interventions for the treatment of symptoms associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

13. Acupuncture for acute hordeolum.

14. Acupuncture for acute management and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury.

15. Acupuncture for acute stroke.

16. Acupuncture for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.

17. Acupuncture for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

18. Acupuncture for Bell's palsy.

19. Acupuncture for cancer pain in adults.

20. Acupuncture for chronic asthma.

21. Acupuncture for chronic hepatitis B.

22. Acupuncture for chronic nonspecific low back pain.

23. Acupuncture for depression.

24. Acupuncture for dysmenorrhoea.

25. Acupuncture for dysphagia in acute stroke.

26. Acupuncture for epilepsy.

27. Acupuncture for functional dyspepsia.

28. Acupuncture for glaucoma.

29. Acupuncture for hip osteoarthritis.

30. Acupuncture for hypertension.

31. Acupuncture for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates.

32. Acupuncture for insomnia.

33. Acupuncture for lateral elbow pain.

34. Acupuncture for menopausal hot flushes.

35. Acupuncture for mumps in children.

36. Acupuncture for neuropathic pain in adults.

37. Acupuncture for pain in endometriosis.

38. Acupuncture for peripheral joint osteoarthritis.

39. Acupuncture for polycystic ovarian syndrome.

40. Acupuncture for restless legs syndrome.

41. Acupuncture for schizophrenia.

42. Acupuncture for shoulder pain.

43. Acupuncture for slowing the progression of myopia in children and adolescents.

44. Acupuncture for stress urinary incontinence in adults.

45. Acupuncture for stroke rehabilitation.

46. Acupuncture for symptomatic gastroparesis.

47. Acupuncture for the prevention of episodic migraine.

48. Acupuncture for the prevention of tension‐type headache.

49. Acupuncture for treating acute ankle sprains in adults.

50. Acupuncture for treating fibromyalgia.

51. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

52. Acupuncture for uterine fibroids.

53. Acupuncture for vascular dementia.

54. Acupuncture or acupressure for induction of labour.

55. Acupuncture or acupressure for pain management during labour.

56. Alcohol intake reduction for controlling hypertension.

57. Alexander technique for chronic asthma.

58. Aloe vera for prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis.

59. Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds.

60. Alpha lipoic acid for dementia.

61. Altered dietary salt for preventing pre‐eclampsia, and its complications.

62. Altered dietary salt intake for people with chronic kidney disease.

63. Altered dietary salt intake for preventing and treating diabetic kidney disease.

64. Alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) for depression.

65. Animal‐assisted therapy for dementia.

66. Antenatal breast milk expression by women with diabetes for improving infant outcomes.

67. Antenatal dietary supplementation with myo‐inositol in women during pregnancy for preventing gestational diabetes.

68. Anti‐spasticity agents for multiple sclerosis.

69. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis.

70. Antiemetic medication for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy‐induced nausea and vomiting in childhood.

71. Antioxidant supplementation for lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

72. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases.

73. Antioxidant supplements for non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease and/or steatohepatitis.

74. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers.

75. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases.

76. Antioxidant treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease.

77. Antioxidant treatments for schizophrenia.

78. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for preventing age‐related macular degeneration.

79. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age‐related macular degeneration.

80. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age‐related cataract.

81. Antioxidants for chronic kidney disease.

82. Antioxidants for female subfertility.

83. Antioxidants for male subfertility.

84. Antioxidants for pain in chronic pancreatitis.

85. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

86. Antioxidants for preventing pre‐eclampsia.

87. Antioxidants to prevent respiratory decline in people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and progressive respiratory decline.

88. Aromatherapy for dementia.

89. Aromatherapy for pain management in labour.

90. Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

91. Art therapy for people with dementia.

92. Art therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia‐like illnesses.

93. Ascorbic acid for the treatment of Charcot‐Marie‐Tooth disease.

94. Assessment and support during early labour for improving birth outcomes.

95. Assisted reproductive technology: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

96. Astragalus (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease.

97. Auricular acupuncture for cocaine dependence.

98. Ayurvedic medicine for schizophrenia.

99. Ayurvedic treatments for diabetes mellitus.

100. Balneotherapy (or spa therapy) for rheumatoid arthritis.

101. Balneotherapy for chronic venous insufficiency.

102. Balneotherapy for osteoarthritis.

103. Behavioural interventions for dysmenorrhoea.

104. Behavioural interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta‐analysis.

105. Behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

106. Behavioural treatment for chronic low‐back pain.

107. Beta‐sitosterols for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

108. Biofeedback and/or sphincter exercises for the treatment of faecal incontinence in adults.

109. Biofeedback for pain management during labour.

110. Biofeedback for treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation in adults.

111. Biofeedback for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

112. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms.

113. Blood pressure lowering efficacy of coenzyme Q10 for primary hypertension.

114. Branched‐chain amino acids for people with hepatic encephalopathy.

115. Breastfeeding or nipple stimulation for reducing postpartum haemorrhage in the third stage of labour.

116. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

117. Bright light therapy for sleep problems in adults aged 60+.

118. Bulking agents, antispasmodics and antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

119. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults.

120. Caffeine for asthma.

121. Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers.

122. Calcium and vitamin D for corticosteroid‐induced osteoporosis.

123. Calcium supplementation (other than for preventing or treating hypertension) for improving pregnancy and infant outcomes.

124. Calcium supplementation commencing before or early in pregnancy, for preventing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

125. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems.

126. Calcium supplementation for improving bone mineral density in children.

127. Calcium supplementation for prevention of primary hypertension.

128. Calcium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults.

129. Calcium, vitamin D or recombinant parathyroid hormone for managing post‐thyroidectomy hypoparathyroidism.

130. Calorie controlled diet for chronic asthma.

131. Cannabinoids for epilepsy.

132. Cannabinoids for fibromyalgia.

133. Cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy.

134. Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia.

135. Cannabinoids for Tourette's Syndrome.

136. Cannabis and cannabinoids for symptomatic treatment for people with multiple sclerosis.

137. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

138. Cannabis for the treatment of Crohn's disease.

139. Cannabis for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

140. Cannabis‐based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

141. Capsaicin for non‐allergic rhinitis.

142. Cardioprotective interventions for cancer patients receiving anthracyclines.

143. Carnitine for fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

144. Carnitine supplementation for inborn errors of metabolism.

145. Castor oil, bath and/or enema for cervical priming and induction of labour.

146. Cephalic version by moxibustion for breech presentation.

147. Chelation for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

148. Chelation therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

149. Chinese herbal medicine for atopic eczema.

150. Chinese herbal medicine for chronic neck pain due to cervical degenerative disc disease.

151. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

152. Chinese herbal medicine for endometriosis.

153. Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms.

154. Chinese herbal medicine for oesophageal cancer.

155. Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome.

156. Chinese herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhoea.

157. Chinese herbal medicine for schizophrenia.

158. Chinese herbal medicine for subfertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

159. Chinese herbal medicine for treating recurrent urinary tract infections in women.

160. Chinese herbal medicine Huangqi type formulations for nephrotic syndrome.

161. Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of ectopic pregnancy.

162. Chinese herbal medicine suxiao jiuxin wan for angina pectoris.

163. Chinese herbal medicines for acute pancreatitis.

164. Chinese herbal medicines for benign thyroid nodules in adults.

165. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia.

166. Chinese herbal medicines for hyperthyroidism.

167. Chinese herbal medicines for hypertriglyceridaemia.

168. Chinese herbal medicines for hypothyroidism.

169. Chinese herbal medicines for induction of remission in advanced or late gastric cancer.

170. Chinese herbal medicines for people with impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting blood glucose.

171. Chinese herbal medicines for threatened miscarriage.

172. Chinese herbal medicines for treating osteoporosis.

173. Chinese herbal medicines for treating pre‐eclampsia.

174. Chinese herbal medicines for treating skin and soft‐tissue infections.

175. Chinese herbal medicines for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

176. Chinese herbs combined with Western medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

177. Chinese medical herbs for chemotherapy side effects in colorectal cancer patients.

178. Chinese medicinal herbs for acute bronchitis.

179. Chinese medicinal herbs for asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus infection.

180. Chinese medicinal herbs for cholelithiasis.

181. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B.

182. Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza.

183. Chinese medicinal herbs for measles.

184. Chinese medicinal herbs for mumps.

185. Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat.

186. Chinese medicinal herbs for the common cold.

187. Chitosan for overweight or obesity.

188. Chondroitin for osteoarthritis.

189. Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults.

190. Chuanxiong‐type preparations for acute ischemic stroke.

191. Cinnamon for diabetes mellitus.

192. Co‐enzyme Q10 supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

193. Coenzyme Q10 for heart failure.

194. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), third‐wave CBT and interpersonal therapy (IPT) based interventions for preventing depression in children and adolescents.

195. Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus.

196. Cold‐water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise.

197. Combined calcium, magnesium and potassium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults.

198. Combined chiropractic interventions for low‐back pain.

199. Combined diet and exercise interventions for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

200. Combined vitamin B6‐magnesium treatment in autism spectrum disorder.

201. Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour.

202. Complementary and miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children.

203. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris.

204. Conservative interventions for treating exercise‐related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain.

205. Conservative interventions for treating functional daytime urinary incontinence in children.

206. Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence.

207. Conservative management of symptomatic and/or complicated haemorrhoids in pregnancy and the puerperium.

208. Continuous support for women during childbirth.

209. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for kidney transplant recipients.

210. Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease.

211. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections.

212. Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections.

213. Creatine for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease.

214. Creatine for Parkinson's disease.

215. Creatine for treating muscle disorders.

216. Creatine for women in pregnancy for neuroprotection of the fetus.

217. Curcumin for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.

218. Cyclamen europaeum extract for acute sinusitis.

219. Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

220. Dan Shen agents for acute ischaemic stroke.

221. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

222. Dance movement therapy for depression.

223. Dance therapy for schizophrenia.

224. Dance/movement therapy for improving psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients.

225. Danshen (Chinese medicinal herb) preparations for acute myocardial infarction.

226. Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.

227. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people.

228. Dehydroepiandrosterone for systemic lupus erythematosus.

229. Dehydroepiandrosterone for women in the peri‐ or postmenopausal phase.

230. Delivery arrangements for health systems in low‐income countries: an overview of systematic reviews.

231. Dengzhanhua preparations for acute cerebral infarction.

232. Diaries for recovery from critical illness.

233. Dietary advice for people with schizophrenia.

234. Dietary advice for reducing cardiovascular risk.

235. Dietary advice interventions in pregnancy for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

236. Dietary calcium supplementation for preventing colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps.

237. Dietary fibre for the prevention of recurrent colorectal adenomas and carcinomas.

238. Dietary fibre for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

239. Dietary flavonoid for preventing colorectal neoplasms.

240. Dietary interventions (plant sterols, stanols, omega‐3 fatty acids, soy protein and dietary fibers) for familial hypercholesterolaemia.

241. Dietary interventions for adult cancer survivors.

242. Dietary interventions for adults with chronic kidney disease.

243. Dietary interventions for mineral and bone disorder in people with chronic kidney disease.

244. Dietary interventions for multiple sclerosis‐related outcomes.

245. Dietary interventions for preventing complications in idiopathic hypercalciuria.

246. Dietary interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

247. Dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis.

248. Dietary marine fatty acids (fish oil) for asthma in adults and children.

249. Dietary sodium manipulation and asthma.

250. Dietary supplementation with myo‐inositol in women during pregnancy for treating gestational diabetes.

251. Dietary supplements for chronic gout.

252. Dietary supplements for dysmenorrhoea.

253. Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema.

254. Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

255. Drama therapy for schizophrenia or schizophrenia‐like illnesses.

256. Drug therapy for treating post‐dural puncture headache.

257. Drugs for preventing lung cancer in healthy people.

258. Early intervention for psychosis.

259. Early skin‐to‐skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants.

260. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold.

261. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

262. Effects and safety of periconceptional oral folate supplementation for preventing birth defects.

263. Effects of a gluten‐reduced or gluten‐free diet for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

264. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride.

265. Effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on linear growth and other health outcomes among children under five years of age.

266. Effects of restricted caffeine intake by mother on fetal, neonatal and pregnancy outcomes.

267. Effects of total fat intake on body fatness in adults.

268. Effects of total fat intake on body weight.

269. Effects of total fat intake on bodyweight in children.

270. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, an omega‐3 fatty acid from fish oils) for the treatment of cancer cachexia.

271. Electrical stimulation for faecal incontinence in adults.

272. Electrical stimulation for preventing and treating post‐stroke shoulder pain.

273. Electrical stimulation for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

274. Electrical stimulation for treating pressure ulcers.

275. Electrical stimulation with non‐implanted devices for stress urinary incontinence in women.

276. Electrical stimulation with non‐implanted electrodes for overactive bladder in adults.

277. Electrical stimulation with non‐implanted electrodes for urinary incontinence in men.

278. Electromagnetic fields for treating osteoarthritis.

279. Electromagnetic therapy for treating pressure ulcers.

280. Electromagnetic therapy for treating venous leg ulcers.

281. Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

282. Electrotherapy modalities for rotator cuff disease.

283. Endometriosis: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

284. Enteral nutrition for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.

285. Environmental enrichment for stroke and other non‐progressive brain injury.

286. Ephedrine for myasthenia gravis, neonatal myasthenia and the congenital myasthenic syndromes.

287. Exercise for dysmenorrhoea.

288. Exercise for preventing falls in older people living in the community.

289. Exercise for rheumatoid arthritis of the hand.

290. Exercise programs for people with dementia.

291. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders.

292. Fermented milk for hypertension.

293. Feverfew for preventing migraine.

294. Fish oil for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis.

295. Fish oil for kidney transplant recipients.

296. Flavonoids for treating venous leg ulcers.

297. Folate for depressive disorders.

298. Folate supplementation in people with sickle cell disease.

299. Folic acid and folinic acid for reducing side effects in patients receiving methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis.

300. Folic acid for fragile X syndrome.

301. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy for maternal health and pregnancy outcomes.

302. Folic acid with or without vitamin B12 for the prevention and treatment of healthy elderly and demented people.

303. Galantamine for dementia in people with Down syndrome.

304. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment.

305. Ganoderma lucidum mushroom for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors.

306. Garlic for peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

307. Garlic for preventing pre‐eclampsia and its complications.

308. Garlic for the common cold.

309. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients.

310. Ginkgo biloba extract for age‐related macular degeneration.

311. Ginkgo biloba for acute ischaemic stroke.

312. Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia.

313. Ginkgo biloba for intermittent claudication.

314. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus.

315. Ginseng for cognition.

316. Ginseng for erectile dysfunction.

317. Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis.

318. Glutamine for induction of remission in Crohn's disease.

319. Glutamine supplementation for critically ill adults.

320. Glutamine supplementation for young infants with severe gastrointestinal disease.

321. Glutamine supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.

322. Green and black tea for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

323. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer.

324. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.

325. Guided imagery for treating hypertension in pregnancy.

326. Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure.

327. Helminth therapy (worms) for allergic rhinitis.

328. Helminth therapy (worms) for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease.

329. Herbal interventions for chronic asthma in adults and children.

330. Herbal medicinal products or preparations for neuropathic pain.

331. Herbal medicine for low‐back pain.

332. Herbal medicines for fatty liver diseases.

333. Herbal medicines for treating HIV infection and AIDS.

334. Herbal medicines for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

335. Herbal preparations for uterine fibroids.

336. Herbal therapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis.

337. High versus low‐added sugar consumption for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

338. Homeopathic medicinal products for preventing and treating acute respiratory tract infections in children.

339. Homeopathy for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or hyperkinetic disorder.

340. Homeopathy for chronic asthma.

341. Homeopathy for dementia.

342. Homeopathy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

343. Homocysteine lowering interventions for peripheral arterial disease and bypass grafts.

344. Homocysteine‐lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events.

345. Honey and lozenges for children with non‐specific cough.

346. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds.

347. Honey for acute cough in children.

348. Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.

349. Horticultural therapy for schizophrenia.

350. Humidification of indoor air for preventing or reducing dryness symptoms or upper respiratory infections in educational settings and at the workplace.

351. Humour‐based interventions for people with schizophrenia.

352. Huperzine A for Alzheimer's disease.

353. Huperzine A for mild cognitive impairment.

354. Huperzine A for vascular dementia.

355. Hyperbaric oxygen for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus.

356. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute ischaemic stroke.

357. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for Bell's palsy.

358. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for delayed onset muscle soreness and closed soft tissue injury.

359. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for multiple sclerosis.

360. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

361. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for promoting fracture healing and treating fracture non‐union.

362. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the adjunctive treatment of traumatic brain injury.

363. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for vascular dementia.

364. Hyperbaric oxygenation for tumour sensitisation to radiotherapy.

365. Hypnosis for induction of labour.

366. Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth.

367. Hypnosis for schizophrenia.

368. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

369. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

370. Immersion in water during labour and birth.

371. Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

372. Indoor salt water baths followed by artificial ultraviolet B light for chronic plaque psoriasis.

373. Inositol for depressive disorders.

374. Inositol for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

375. Intercessory prayer for the alleviation of ill health.

376. Intermittent fasting for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

377. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy.

378. Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression.

379. Interventions during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews.

380. Interventions for apathy after traumatic brain injury.

381. Interventions for bullous pemphigoid.

382. Interventions for central serous chorioretinopathy: a network meta‐analysis.

383. Interventions for chronic kidney disease‐associated restless legs syndrome.

384. Interventions for chronic palmoplantar pustulosis.

385. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism pre‐pregnancy and during pregnancy.

386. Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum.

387. Interventions for drug‐using offenders with co‐occurring mental health problems.

388. Interventions for dysarthria due to stroke and other adult‐acquired, non‐progressive brain injury.

389. Interventions for erosive lichen planus affecting mucosal sites.

390. Interventions for fatigue in inflammatory bowel disease.

391. Interventions for fatigue in peripheral neuropathy.

392. Interventions for fear of childbirth including tocophobia.

393. Interventions for heartburn in pregnancy.

394. Interventions for improving mobility after hip fracture surgery in adults.

395. Interventions for improving sleep quality in people with chronic kidney disease.

396. Interventions for improving upper limb function after stroke.

397. Interventions for increasing acceptance of local anaesthetic in children and adolescents having dental treatment.

398. Interventions for ingrowing toenails.

399. Interventions for itch in people with advanced chronic kidney disease.

400. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy.

401. Interventions for lowering plasma homocysteine levels in dialysis patients.

402. Interventions for maintenance of surgically induced remission in Crohn’s disease: a network meta‐analysis.

403. Interventions for managing asthma in pregnancy.

404. Interventions for managing taste disturbances.

405. Interventions for managing temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

406. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.

407. Interventions for palliative symptom control in COVID‐19 patients.

408. Interventions for pityriasis rosea.

409. Interventions for post‐stroke fatigue.

410. Interventions for preventing and treating low‐back and pelvic pain during pregnancy.

411. Interventions for preventing bone disease in kidney transplant recipients.

412. Interventions for preventing falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals.

413. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community.

414. Interventions for preventing falls in people after stroke.

415. Interventions for preventing infection in nephrotic syndrome.

416. Interventions for preventing mastitis after childbirth.

417. Interventions for preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section.

418. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment.

419. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

420. Interventions for prevention of herpes simplex labialis (cold sores on the lips).

421. Interventions for prevention of post‐operative recurrence of Crohn's disease.

422. Interventions for primary vesicoureteric reflux.

423. Interventions for prodromal stage of psychosis.

424. Interventions for reducing anxiety in women undergoing colposcopy.

425. Interventions for reducing inflammation in familial Mediterranean fever.

426. Interventions for replacing missing teeth: hyperbaric oxygen therapy for irradiated patients who require dental implants.

427. Interventions for self‐harm in children and adolescents.

428. Interventions for the management of abdominal pain in Crohn's disease and inflammatory bowel disease.

429. Interventions for the management of abdominal pain in ulcerative colitis.

430. Interventions for the management of dry mouth: non‐pharmacological interventions.

431. Interventions for the management of oral submucous fibrosis.

432. Interventions for the reduction of prescribed opioid use in chronic non‐cancer pain.

433. Interventions for treating anxiety after stroke.

434. Interventions for treating burning mouth syndrome.

435. Interventions for treating collagenous colitis.

436. Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy.

437. Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy.

438. Interventions for treating gas gangrene.

439. Interventions for treating hyperemesis gravidarum.

440. Interventions for treating leg ulcers in people with sickle cell disease.

441. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia to prevent oral cancer.

442. Interventions for treating painful nipples among breastfeeding women.

443. Interventions for treating persistent pain in survivors of torture.

444. Interventions for treating sexual dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease.

445. Interventions for treating urinary incontinence after stroke in adults.

446. Interventions for varicose veins and leg oedema in pregnancy.

447. Interventions to enhance return‐to‐work for cancer patients.

448. Interventions to facilitate return to work in adults with adjustment disorders.

449. Interventions to improve psychosocial well‐being in female BRCA‐mutation carriers following risk‐reducing surgery.

450. Interventions to prevent women from developing gestational diabetes mellitus: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

451. Interventions to reduce acute and late adverse gastrointestinal effects of pelvic radiotherapy for primary pelvic cancers.

452. Intraoperative interventions for preventing surgical site infection: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

453. Iodine supplementation for women during the preconception, pregnancy and postpartum period.

454. Iron chelators for acute stroke.

455. Iron for the treatment of restless legs syndrome.

456. Iron supplementation for breath‐holding attacks in children.

457. Iron supplementation for reducing morbidity and mortality in children with HIV.

458. Isoflavones for hypercholesterolaemia in adults.

459. Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birthweight infants.

460. Kava extract versus placebo for treating anxiety.

461. Ketogenic diets for drug‐resistant epilepsy.

462. L‐acetylcarnitine for treating fragile X syndrome.

463. L‐carnitine for cognitive enhancement in people without cognitive impairment.

464. L‐ornithine L‐aspartate for prevention and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in people with cirrhosis.

465. Lactose avoidance for young children with acute diarrhoea.

466. Laetrile treatment for cancer.

467. Lecithin for dementia and cognitive impairment.

468. Lifestyle interventions for acute gout.

469. Lifestyle modifications for nonalcohol‐related fatty liver disease: a network meta‐analysis.

470. Light therapy for improving cognition, activities of daily living, sleep, challenging behaviour, and psychiatric disturbances in dementia.

471. Light therapy for non‐seasonal depression.

472. Light therapy for preventing seasonal affective disorder.

473. Lipid emulsions for parenterally fed preterm infants.

474. Lipid emulsions for parenterally fed term and late preterm infants.

475. Lipid‐based nutrient supplements for maternal, birth, and infant developmental outcomes.

476. Local cooling for relieving pain from perineal trauma sustained during childbirth.

477. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term.

478. Low glycaemic index diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

479. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity.

480. Low glycaemic index, or low glycaemic load, diets for diabetes mellitus.

481. Low protein diets for non‐diabetic adults with chronic kidney disease.

482. Low‐carbohydrate versus balanced‐carbohydrate diets for reducing weight and cardiovascular risk.

483. Low‐fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia.

484. Lycopene for the prevention of prostate cancer.

485. Magnesium for alcohol withdrawal.

486. Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps.

487. Magnesium for treating sickle cell disease.

488. Magnesium maintenance therapy for preventing preterm birth after threatened preterm labour.

489. Magnesium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults.

490. Magnesium supplementation in pregnancy.

491. Mailuoning for acute ischaemic stroke.

492. Management of gag reflex for patients undergoing dental treatment.

493. Manipulation and mobilisation for neck pain contrasted against an inactive control or another active treatment.

494. Manipulative therapies for infantile colic.

495. Manual therapy and exercise for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

496. Manual therapy for asthma.

497. Marine‐derived n‐3 fatty acids therapy for stroke.

498. Massage and touch for dementia.

499. Massage for low‐back pain.

500. Massage for mechanical neck disorders.

501. Massage for promoting growth and development of preterm and/or low birth‐weight infants.

502. Massage for promoting mental and physical health in typically developing infants under the age of six months.

503. Massage therapy for people with HIV/AIDS.

504. Massage therapy for preventing pressure ulcers.

505. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer.

506. Massage, reflexology and other manual methods for pain management in labour.

507. Maternal dietary antigen avoidance during pregnancy or lactation, or both, for preventing or treating atopic disease in the child.

508. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n‐3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood.

509. Maternal probiotic supplementation for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.

510. The medical use of cannabis for reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV/AIDS.

511. Medicinal herbs for hepatitis C virus infection.

512. Meditation for adults with haematological malignancies.

513. Meditation therapies for attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

514. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

515. Mediterranean‐style diet for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

516. Melatonin and agomelatine for preventing seasonal affective disorder.

517. Melatonin as add‐on treatment for epilepsy.

518. Melatonin for non‐respiratory sleep disorders in visually impaired children.

519. Melatonin for preoperative and postoperative anxiety in adults.

520. Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of jet lag.

521. Melatonin for the promotion of sleep in adults in the intensive care unit.

522. Melatonin for the treatment of dementia.

523. Melatonin for women in pregnancy for neuroprotection of the fetus.

524. Memantine for dementia in people with Down syndrome.

525. Methods of milk expression for lactating women.

526. Methods of preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications after liver transplantation.

527. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection.

528. Micronutrient supplementation in pregnant women with HIV infection.

529. Midwife‐led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women.

530. Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C virus liver diseases.

531. Mind and body therapy for fibromyalgia.

532. Mind‐body interventions during pregnancy for preventing or treating women's anxiety.

533. Mindfulness for smoking cessation.

534. Mindfulness‐based interventions for substance use disorders.

535. Mindfulness‐based psychological interventions for improving mental well‐being in medical students and junior doctors.

536. Mindfulness‐based stress reduction for family carers of people with dementia.

537. Mindfulness‐based stress reduction for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

538. Mistletoe therapy in oncology.

539. Momordica charantia for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

540. Monosodium glutamate avoidance for chronic asthma in adults and children.

541. Morita therapy for anxiety disorders in adults.

542. Morita therapy for schizophrenia.

543. Moxibustion for alleviating side effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy in people with cancer.

544. Multinutrient fortification of human breast milk for preterm infants following hospital discharge.

545. Muscle energy technique for non‐specific low‐back pain.

546. Music during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia for improving maternal and infant outcomes.

547. Music for insomnia in adults.

548. Music for stress and anxiety reduction in coronary heart disease patients.

549. Music interventions for acquired brain injury.

550. Music interventions for improving psychological and physical outcomes in people with cancer.

551. Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

552. Music interventions for preoperative anxiety.

553. Music therapy for depression.

554. Music therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder.

555. Music therapy for people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia‐like disorders.

556. Music therapy for people with substance use disorders.

557. Music‐based therapeutic interventions for people with dementia.

558. N‐acetylcarnosine (NAC) drops for age‐related cataract.

559. N‐acetylcysteine as an adjuvant therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

560. N‐acetylcysteine for non‐paracetamol (acetaminophen)‐related acute liver failure.

561. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in adults and children.

562. Neuromodulators for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis.

563. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for patellofemoral pain syndrome.

564. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.

565. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for the prevention of venous thromboembolism.

566. Neuromuscular electrostimulation for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

567. Niacin for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events.

568. Nicobrevin for smoking cessation.

569. Nicotine for schizophrenia.

570. Nidotherapy for people with schizophrenia.

571. Non surgical therapy for anal fissure.

572. Non‐antistreptococcal interventions for acute guttate psoriasis or an acute guttate flare of chronic psoriasis.

573. Non‐clinical interventions for reducing unnecessary caesarean section.

574. Non‐drug therapies for the secondary prevention of lower limb muscle cramps.

575. Non‐hormonal interventions for hot flushes in women with a history of breast cancer.

576. Non‐invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain.

577. Non‐invasive interventions for improving well‐being and quality of life in patients with lung cancer.

578. Non‐pharmacological interventions for alleviating pain during orthodontic treatment.

579. Non‐pharmacological interventions for chronic pain in multiple sclerosis.

580. Non‐pharmacological interventions for chronic pain in people with spinal cord injury.

581. Non‐pharmacological interventions for cognitive impairment due to systemic cancer treatment.

582. Non‐pharmacological interventions for depression in adults and children with traumatic brain injury.

583. Non‐pharmacological interventions for fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis.

584. Non‐pharmacological interventions for people with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.

585. Non‐pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in hospitalized children.

586. Non‐pharmacological interventions for sleep promotion in the intensive care unit.

587. Non‐pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders and medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) in adults.

588. Non‐pharmacological interventions for spatial neglect or inattention following stroke and other non‐progressive brain injury.

589. Non‐surgical interventions for the management of chronic pelvic pain.

590. Non‐surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome.

591. Normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment and prevention of migraine and cluster headache.

592. Nut consumption for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

593. Nutritional interventions for liver‐transplanted patients.

594. Nutritional interventions for preventing and treating pressure ulcers.

595. Nutritional interventions for reducing gastrointestinal toxicity in adults undergoing radical pelvic radiotherapy.

596. Nutritional interventions for reducing morbidity and mortality in people with HIV.

597. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

598. Nutritional interventions for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes.

599. Nutritional supplementation for hip fracture aftercare in older people.

600. Nutritional supplementation for nonalcohol‐related fatty liver disease: a network meta‐analysis.

601. Nutritional supplementation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

602. Nutritional supplements for patients being treated for active visceral leishmaniasis.

603. Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis.

604. Nutritional support for acute kidney injury.

605. Nutritional support for liver disease.

606. Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia.

607. Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease.

608. Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.

609. Omega 3 fatty acids for preventing or slowing the progression of age‐related macular degeneration.

610. Omega‐3 and omega‐6 polyunsaturated fatty acids for dry eye disease.

611. Omega‐3 fatty acid addition during pregnancy.

612. Omega‐3 fatty acid supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

613. Omega‐3 fatty acids for bipolar disorder.

614. Omega‐3 fatty acids for depression in adults.

615. Omega‐3 fatty acids for dialysis vascular access outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease.

616. Omega‐3 fatty acids for intermittent claudication.

617. Omega‐3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

618. Omega‐3 fatty acids for the treatment of dementia.

619. Omega‐3 fatty acids supplementation for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

620. Omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

621. Oral Astragalus (Huang qi) for preventing frequent episodes of acute respiratory tract infection in children.

622. Oral evening primrose oil and borage oil for eczema.

623. Oral galactagogues (natural therapies or drugs) for increasing breast milk production in mothers of non‐hospitalised term infants.

624. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis.

625. Oral immunotherapy for milk allergy.

626. Oral protein‐based supplements versus placebo or no treatment for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis.

627. Oral traditional Chinese medication for adhesive small bowel obstruction.

628. Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency.

629. Oral zinc for arterial and venous leg ulcers.

630. Oral zinc for the prevention of hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates.

631. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children.

632. Organisational interventions for preventing and minimising aggression directed towards healthcare workers by patients and patient advocates.

633. Over‐the‐counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings.

634. Ozone therapy for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes.

635. Padma 28 for intermittent claudication.

636. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews.

637. Pain relief for women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia undergoing colposcopy treatment.

638. Pain‐relieving agents for infantile colic.

639. Pancreatic enzymes for chronic pancreatitis.

640. Parent‐infant psychotherapy for improving parental and infant mental health.

641. Parenteral versus oral iron therapy for adults and children with chronic kidney disease.

642. Participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities for health and well‐being in adults: a review of quantitative and qualitative evidence.

643. Passiflora for anxiety disorder.

644. Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections.

645. Pelvic floor muscle training added to another active treatment versus the same active treatment alone for urinary incontinence in women.

646. Perceptions and experiences of labour companionship: a qualitative evidence synthesis.

647. Peri‐operative glycaemic control regimens for preventing surgical site infections in adults.

648. Perianal injectable bulking agents as treatment for faecal incontinence in adults.

649. Pharmacological agents for adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

650. Pharmacological and mechanical interventions for labour induction in outpatient settings.

651. Pharmacological and nutritional treatment for McArdle disease (Glycogen Storage Disease type V).

652. Pharmacological interventions for borderline personality disorder.

653. Pharmacological interventions for clozapine‐induced hypersalivation.

654. Pharmacological interventions for cognitive decline in people with Down syndrome.

655. Pharmacological interventions for self‐harm in adults.

656. Pharmacological interventions for sleepiness and sleep disturbances caused by shift work.

657. Pharmacological interventions for somatoform disorders in adults.

658. Pharmacological interventions for treating intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

659. Pharmacological treatment other than corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange for Guillain‐Barré syndrome.

660. Pharmacological, psychological and non‐invasive brain stimulation interventions for preventing depression after stroke.

661. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence.

662. Pharmacotherapies for sleep disturbances in dementia.

663. Phlebotonics for haemorrhoids.

664. Phlebotonics for venous insufficiency.

665. Phototherapy for atopic eczema.

666. Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

667. Phyllanthus species versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

668. Physical activity and exercise for chronic pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

669. Physical activity for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic obstruction.

670. Physical activity for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

671. Physical activity interventions for disease‐related physical and mental health during and following treatment in people with non‐advanced colorectal cancer.

672. Physical therapies for postural abnormalities in people with cystic fibrosis.

673. Physical therapy for Bell's palsy (idiopathic facial paralysis).

674. Phytoestrogens for menopausal vasomotor symptoms.

675. Phytomedicines (medicines derived from plants) for sickle cell disease.

676. Pilates for low back pain.

677. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for drug‐resistant epilepsy.

678. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for schizophrenia.

679. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy for the prevention of allergy.

680. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents.

681. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for children with specific learning disorders.

682. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

683. Potassium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults.

684. Prebiotics for the prevention of hyperbilirubinaemia in neonates.

685. Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergy.

686. Prescribed hypocaloric nutrition support for critically‐ill adults.

687. Preventing occupational stress in healthcare workers.

688. Prevention of depression in adults with long‐term physical conditions.

689. Probiotic treatment for women with gestational diabetes to improve maternal and infant health and well‐being.

690. Probiotics for induction of remission in Crohn's disease.

691. Probiotics for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis.

692. Probiotics for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis.

693. Probiotics for people with cystic fibrosis.

694. Probiotics for people with hepatic encephalopathy.

695. Probiotics for preventing acute otitis media in children.

696. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

697. Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes.

698. Probiotics for preventing preterm labour.

699. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infection in people with neuropathic bladder.

700. Probiotics for preventing urinary tract infections in adults and children.

701. Probiotics for preventing ventilator‐associated pneumonia.

702. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile‐associated diarrhea in adults and children.

703. Probiotics for the prevention of Hirschsprung‐associated enterocolitis.

704. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic‐associated diarrhea.

705. Probiotics for the prevention or treatment of chemotherapy‐ or radiotherapy‐related diarrhoea in people with cancer.

706. Probiotics for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

707. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea.

708. Probiotics for treating eczema.

709. Probiotics for treating persistent diarrhoea in children.

710. Probiotics for treatment of chronic constipation in children.

711. Probiotics for treatment of Clostridium difficile‐associated colitis in adults.

712. Probiotics for vulvovaginal candidiasis in non‐pregnant women.

713. Probiotics in infants for prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity.

714. Probiotics to prevent infantile colic.

715. Probiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm or very low birth weight infants.

716. Procaine treatments for cognition and dementia.

717. Prolotherapy injections for chronic low‐back pain.

718. Prophylactic postnatal thyroid hormones for prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.

719. Protein restriction for children with chronic kidney disease.

720. Protein restriction for diabetic renal disease.

721. Provision of folic acid for reducing arsenic toxicity in arsenic‐exposed children and adults.

722. Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused.

723. Psychological and behavioural treatments for adults with non‐epileptic attack disorder.

724. Psychological and educational interventions for atopic eczema in children.

725. Psychological interventions for acute pain after open heart surgery.

726. Psychological interventions for coronary heart disease.

727. Psychological interventions for needle‐related procedural pain and distress in children and adolescents.

728. Psychological interventions for people with hemophilia.

729. Psychological interventions for post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in people with severe mental illness.

730. Psychological interventions for symptomatic management of non‐specific chest pain in patients with normal coronary anatomy.

731. Psychological interventions for treating foot ulcers, and preventing their recurrence, in people with diabetes.

732. Psychological interventions to foster resilience in healthcare professionals.

733. Psychological interventions to foster resilience in healthcare students.

734. Psychological preparation and postoperative outcomes for adults undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia.

735. Psychological therapies (remotely delivered) for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents.

736. Psychological therapies for children and adolescents exposed to trauma.

737. Psychological therapies for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia in adults: a network meta‐analysis.

738. Psychological therapies for pathological and problem gambling.

739. Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder.

740. Psychological therapies for people with borderline personality disorder.

741. Psychological therapies for preventing seasonal affective disorder.

742. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents.

743. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults.

744. Psychological therapies for the prevention of migraine in adults.

745. Psychological therapies for the treatment of mental disorders in low‐ and middle‐income countries affected by humanitarian crises.

746. Psychological therapies for the treatment of post‐traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents.

747. Psychological therapies for treatment‐resistant depression in adults.

748. Psychological therapies for women who experience intimate partner violence.

749. Psychological treatments for depression and anxiety in dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

750. Psychological treatments for people with epilepsy.

751. Psychosocial group interventions to improve psychological well‐being in adults living with HIV.

752. Psychosocial interventions for conversion and dissociative disorders in adults.

753. Psychosocial interventions for preventing and treating depression in dialysis patients.

754. Psychosocial interventions for recurrent abdominal pain in childhood.

755. Psychosocial interventions for self‐harm in adults.

756. Psychosocial interventions for self‐harm in adults.

757. Puerarin for ischaemic stroke.

758. Pygeum africanum for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

759. Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) supplementation during pregnancy or labour for maternal and neonatal outcomes.

760. Qigong for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

761. Quinine for muscle cramps.

762. Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus no intervention or placebo for chronic hepatitis B.

763. Radix Sophorae flavescentis versus other drugs or herbs for chronic hepatitis B.

764. Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

765. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease.

766. Reduced salt intake compared to normal dietary salt, or high intake, in pregnancy.

767. Reduction in saturated fat intake for cardiovascular disease.

768. Regimens of vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

769. Rehabilitation following carpal tunnel release.

770. Reiki for depression and anxiety.

771. Relaxation for depression.

772. Relaxation for perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms.

773. Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour.

774. Relaxation therapies for the management of primary hypertension in adults.

775. Relaxation therapy for preventing and treating preterm labour.

776. Relief of pain due to uterine cramping/involution after birth.

777. Reminiscence therapy for dementia.

778. Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for impairment and disability in people after stroke.

779. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for panic disorder in adults.

780. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for improving function after stroke.

781. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease.

782. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for tinnitus.

783. Restriction of salt, caffeine and alcohol intake for the treatment of Ménière's disease or syndrome.

784. Resveratrol for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

785. Rheum officinale (a traditional Chinese medicine) for chronic kidney disease.

786. Roselle for hypertension in adults.

787. Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children.

788. Rutosides for prevention of post‐thrombotic syndrome.

789. Rutosides for treatment of post‐thrombotic syndrome.

790. S‐adenosyl methionine (SAMe) for depression in adults.

791. S‐Adenosylmethionine for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip.

792. Salicylate‐containing rubefacients for acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults.

793. Sanchi for acute ischaemic stroke.

794. Selenium for alleviating the side effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery in cancer patients.

795. Selenium for preventing cancer.

796. Selenium supplementation for asthma.

797. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults.

798. Selenium supplementation for Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

799. Selenium supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

800. Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

801. Simulated presence therapy for dementia.

802. Singing as an adjunct therapy for children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

803. Singing for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

804. Singing for children and adults with bronchiectasis.

805. Single dose oral ibuprofen plus caffeine for acute postoperative pain in adults.

806. Single herbal medicine for diabetic retinopathy.

807. Skin‐to‐skin care for procedural pain in neonates.

808. Smectite for acute infectious diarrhoea in children.

809. Snoezelen for dementia.

810. Souvenaid for Alzheimer's disease.

811. Speleotherapy for asthma.

812. Spinal manipulation for dysmenorrhoea.

813. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low‐back pain.

814. Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low‐back pain.

815. Spiritual and religious interventions for well‐being of adults in the terminal phase of disease.

816. Sports and games for post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

817. St John's wort for major depression.

818. Steam inhalation or humidified oxygen for acute bronchiolitis in children up to three years of age.

819. Stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point PC6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

820. Sunlight for the prevention and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in term and late preterm neonates.

821. Superoxide dismutase for preventing chronic lung disease in mechanically ventilated preterm infants.

822. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development.

823. Sweet potato for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

824. Tai Chi for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

825. Tai chi for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

826. Tai Chi for rheumatoid arthritis.

827. Tea tree oil for Demodex blepharitis.

828. Therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders.

829. Therapeutic ultrasound for chronic low back pain.

830. Thermotherapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis.

831. Thermotherapy for treatment of osteoarthritis.

832. Thiamine for Alzheimer's disease.

833. Thiamine for prevention and treatment of Wernicke‐Korsakoff Syndrome in people who abuse alcohol.

834. 'Third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

835. 'Third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression.

836. Thymic peptides for treatment of cancer patients.

837. Tianma Gouteng Yin Formula for treating primary hypertension.

838. Tong‐xin‐luo capsule for patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention.

839. Tongxinluo (Tong xin luo or Tong‐xin‐luo) capsule for unstable angina pectoris.

840. Tongxinluo capsule for acute stroke.

841. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

842. Topical capsaicin (low concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

843. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis.

844. Topical treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis.

845. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine for vascular dementia.

846. Traditional Chinese herbal products for stable angina.

847. Traditional Chinese Medicine herbs for stopping bleeding from haemorrhoids.

848. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

849. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning, in people after stroke.

850. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for schizophrenia.

851. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of epilepsy.

852. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of obsessive‐compulsive disorder.

853. Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults.

854. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic neck pain.

855. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic pain ‐ an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

856. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) for dementia.

857. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for fibromyalgia in adults.

858. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for neuropathic pain in adults.

859. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in labour.

860. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain management in sickle cell disease.

861. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults.

862. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the hand.

863. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) versus placebo for chronic low‐back pain.

864. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for acute pain.

865. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for primary dysmenorrhoea.

866. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) for treatment of constipation in children.

867. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee.

868. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for suspected placental insufficiency (diagnosed by Doppler studies).

869. Treatment and prevention of pouchitis after ileal pouch‐anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis.

870. Treatment for ataxia in multiple sclerosis.

871. Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease.

872. Treatment for mitochondrial disorders.

873. Treatment for osteoporosis in people with ß‐thalassaemia.

874. Treatment for postpolio syndrome.

875. Treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush).

876. Treatment of fatigue in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease.

877. Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation.

878. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (a traditional Chinese medicine) for primary nephrotic syndrome.

879. Tryptophan and 5‐Hydroxytryptophan for depression.

880. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria.

881. Uterine massage for preventing postpartum haemorrhage.

882. Valerian for anxiety disorders.

883. Vegan dietary pattern for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

884. Vitamin A and beta (β)‐carotene supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

885. Vitamin A and fish oils for preventing the progression of retinitis pigmentosa.

886. Vitamin A for non‐measles pneumonia in children.

887. Vitamin A for preventing acute lower respiratory tract infections in children up to seven years of age.

888. Vitamin A for treating measles in children.

889. Vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women.

890. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from six months to five years of age.

891. Vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in infants one to six months of age.

892. Vitamin A supplements for reducing mother‐to‐child HIV transmission.

893. Vitamin and mineral supplementation for maintaining cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in mid and late life.

894. Vitamin and mineral supplementation for preventing dementia or delaying cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment.

895. Vitamin B and its derivatives for diabetic kidney disease.

896. Vitamin B for treating peripheral neuropathy.

897. Vitamin B6 for cognition.

898. Vitamin B12 for cognition.

899. Vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) for diabetic retinopathy.

900. Vitamin C for asthma and exercise‐induced bronchoconstriction.

901. Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia.

902. Vitamin C for preventing and treating tetanus.

903. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold.

904. Vitamin C supplementation for prevention and treatment of pneumonia.

905. Vitamin C supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

906. Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy.

907. Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures in post‐menopausal women and older men.

908. Vitamin D as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of acute childhood pneumonia.

909. Vitamin D compounds for people with chronic kidney disease not requiring dialysis.

910. Vitamin D compounds for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis.

911. Vitamin D for the management of asthma.

912. Vitamin D for the management of multiple sclerosis.

913. Vitamin D for the treatment of chronic painful conditions in adults.

914. Vitamin D supplementation for chronic liver diseases in adults.

915. Vitamin D supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

916. Vitamin D supplementation for improving bone mineral density in children.

917. Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age.

918. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults.

919. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults.

920. Vitamin D supplementation for sickle cell disease.

921. Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID‐19: a living systematic review.

922. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

923. Vitamin E for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

924. Vitamin E for antipsychotic‐induced tardive dyskinesia.

925. Vitamin E for intermittent claudication.

926. Vitamin E supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis.

927. Vitamin E supplementation in pregnancy.

928. Vitamin K for improved anticoagulation control in patients receiving warfarin.

929. Vitamin K for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

930. Vitamin K for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in people with acute or chronic liver diseases.

931. Vitamin K supplementation for cystic fibrosis.

932. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage.

933. Vitamins C and E for asthma and exercise‐induced bronchoconstriction.

934. Vitamins for epilepsy.

935. Water for preventing urinary stones.

936. Water for wound cleansing.

937. Weight loss interventions for chronic asthma.

938. Wendan decoction (Traditional Chinese medicine) for schizophrenia.

939. Whole grain cereals for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

940. Whole grain foods for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

941. Workplace interventions for reducing sitting at work.

942. Workplace lighting for improving alertness and mood in daytime workers.

943. Wound cleansing for pressure ulcers.

944. Written emotional disclosure for asthma.

945. Xiao Chai Hu Tang, a herbal medicine, for chronic hepatitis B.

946. Xiongshao for restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with coronary heart disease.

947. Xuebijing for paraquat poisoning.

948. Xylitol for preventing acute otitis media in children up to 12 years of age.

949. Xylitol‐containing products for preventing dental caries in children and adults.

950. Yizhi capsule for vascular dementia.

951. Yoga as part of a package of care versus non‐standard care for schizophrenia.

952. Yoga as part of a package of care versus standard care for schizophrenia.

953. Yoga for asthma.

954. Yoga for epilepsy.

955. Yoga for improving health‐related quality of life, mental health and cancer‐related symptoms in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

956. Yoga for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

957. Yoga for stroke rehabilitation.

958. Yoga for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

959. Yoga for treating urinary incontinence in women.

960. Yoga in addition to standard care for patients with haematological malignancies.

961. Yoga treatment for chronic non‐specific low back pain.

962. Yoga versus non‐standard care for schizophrenia.

963. Yoga versus standard care for schizophrenia.

964. Zhiling decoction for vascular dementia.

965. Zinc supplementation as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia in children 2 to 59 months of age.

966. Zinc supplementation for improving pregnancy and infant outcome.

967. Zinc supplementation for mental and motor development in children.

968. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of pneumonia in children aged 2 months to 59 months.

969. Zinc supplementation for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults with insulin resistance.

970. Zinc supplementation for tinnitus.

971. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

972. Zinc supplements for treating thalassaemia and sickle cell disease.

 

Cochrane complementary medicine-related protocols as of June 30, 2022

1. Abdominal massage for the treatment of constipation.

2. Acupoint stimulation for postoperative ileus following gastrointestinal surgery.

3. Acupuncture for (sub)acute non‐specific low‐back pain.

4. Acupuncture for chronic constipation.

5. Acupuncture for chronic neck pain.

6. Acupuncture for female subfertility.

7. Acupuncture for turning a breech baby in pregnancy.

8. Adjunctive Peony‐Glycyrrhiza Decoction for antipsychotic‐induced hyperprolactinemia.

9. Alpha‐lipoic acid for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

10. Alpha‐lipoic acid for hypertension in adults.

11. Alternative prophylactic therapies (acupuncture and/or moxibustion) for reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.

12. Animal‐assisted therapy for people with serious mental illness.

13. Animal‐assisted therapy, including animal‐assisted activities and resident animals, for improving quality of life in people with stroke.

14. Antioxidant supplementation for sickle cell disease.

15. Antioxidants for acute pancreatitis.

16. Ayurveda interventions for rheumatoid arthritis.

17. Behavioural therapies versus treatment as usual for depression.

18. Biofeedback for neck pain.

19. Calcium and vitamin D for increasing bone mineral density in premenopausal women.

20. Calcium supplementation for weight reduction in overweight or obese people.

21. Cannabis‐based medicines and medical cannabis for adults with cancer pain.

22. Cannabis‐based medicines for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults.

23. Carnitine supplements for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis.

24. Chinese herbal medicine alone or combined with vitamins for gastric precancerous lesions.

25. Chinese herbal medicine for advanced pancreatic cancer.

26. Chinese medicinal herbs for vaginal bleeding of medical abortion.

27. Chinese medicine for immunological functions in women with breast cancer or a history of breast cancer.

28. Citicoline (CDP‐choline) for traumatic brain injury.

29. Cognitive behavioural therapy and third wave approaches for anxiety and related disorders in older people.

30. Combined large neutral amino acid supplementation for phenylketonuria (PKU).

31. Complementary and alternative therapies for shortening labour.

32. Cordyceps sinensis for hypertension in adults.

33. Coriolus versicolor mushroom for colorectal cancer treatment.

34. Cranberries for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

35. Curcuma longa (turmeric) or its active ingredients for osteoarthritis.

36. Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

37. Dietary interventions for managing glucose abnormalities in people with cystic fibrosis.

38. Different strains of probiotics for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm infants: a network meta‐analysis.

39. EEG neurofeedback for executive functions in children with neurodevelopmental challenges.

40. Electrotherapy modalities for lateral elbow pain.

41. Essential phospholipids for people with non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease.

42. Exercise for fatigue in people with cancer during and after active treatment.

43. Fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

44. Fiber and bulking agents for the treatment of chronic constipation.

45. Fish oil supplements for the prevention and treatment of hypertension in adults.

46. Fish oil‐based lipid emulsions versus standard lipid emulsions for prevention of parenteral nutrition‐associated liver disease in children.

47. Fish oil‐based lipid emulsions versus standard lipid emulsions for treatment of parenteral nutrition‐associated liver disease in children.

48. Folate supplementation in women of reproductive age.

49. Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus.

50. Ginkgo biloba versus placebo for schizophrenia.

51. Ginseng for improving the quality of life in people with cancer.

52. Glycyrrhizin for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

53. Glycyrrhizin versus antiviral drugs for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

54. Herbal (non‐Chinese) medicines for functional dyspepsia.

55. Herbal medicines for systemic lupus erythematosus.

56. Herbal medicines for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

57. Herbal preparations for weight loss in adults.

58. Homeopathy for osteoarthritis.

59. Homeopathy for reducing blood loss in the third stage of labour.

60. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression.

61. Humanistic therapies versus treatment as usual for depression.

62. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for persistent post‐concussion syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury.

63. Hypnosis for preventing preterm labour.

64. Interventions for helping people recognise early signs of recurrence in depression.

65. Ketogenic diet for primary brain and spinal cord tumours.

66. Lactoferrin for the post‐operative management of term neonates after gastrointestinal surgery.

67. Leeches (Hirudinea) for osteoarthritis.

68. Magnetic seizure therapy for people with schizophrenia.

69. Manual therapy and exercise for lateral elbow pain.

70. Manual therapy with exercise for neck pain.

71. Marine oil supplements for rheumatoid arthritis.

72. Massage therapy for improving functional activity after stroke.

73. The McKenzie method for (sub)acute non‐specific low‐back pain.

74. The McKenzie method for chronic non‐specific low‐back pain.

75. Medicinal herbs for acute hepatitis B.

76. Meditation for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

77. Melatonin for preventing pre‐eclampsia.

78. Melatonin for treating pre‐eclampsia.

79. Melatonin in cancer treatment.

80. Mind‐body movement therapies for Parkinson's disease.

81. Mindfulness‐based interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

82. Mindfulness‐based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes in children from birth to age 18 and their parents.

83. Modified dietary fat intake for treatment of gallstone disease.

84. Moxibustion for stroke rehabilitation.

85. Musical and vocal interventions to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm infants.

86. Neuroaid for improving recovery after ischemic stroke.

87. Non‐drug conservative treatments for acute urinary retention after surgery in adults.

88. Non‐hormonal therapy for hot flushes in postmenopausal women.

89. Non‐invasive brain stimulation for improving cognitive function in people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

90. Non‐pharmacological and non‐surgical treatments for low back pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

91. Non‐pharmacological interventions for managing dental anxiety in children.

92. Nutritional therapy for reducing disability and improving activities of daily living in people after stroke.

93. Omega‐3 fatty acid supplementation for depression in children and adolescents.

94. Open Dialogue for psychosis or severe mental illness.

95. Oral probiotics for the treatment of infantile colic.

96. Oral vitamin C supplements to prevent and treat acute upper respiratory tract infections.

97. Participation of traditional, complementary and alternative health practitioners in conventional health systems in low‐ and middle‐income countries.

98. Pentoxifylline and vitamin E alone or in combination for preventing and treating side effects of radiation therapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy.

99. Perioperative antioxidants for adults undergoing elective non‐cardiac surgery.

100. Pharmacological interventions for jet lag.

101. Pharmacological treatments for low back pain in adults: an overview of Cochrane Reviews.

102. Physical interventions (orthoses, splints, exercise and manual therapy) for treating plantar heel pain.

103. Phytoestrogens in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

104. Prebiotics for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis.

105. Prebiotics to prevent necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm or very low birth weight infants.

106. Preschool and school‐based mindfulness programmes for improving mental health and cognitive functioning in young people aged 3 to 18 years.

107. Probiotics as adjunctive therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

108. Probiotics for fibromyalgia.

109. Probiotics for the post‐operative management of term neonates after gastrointestinal surgery.

110. Probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children.

111. Protein restriction for diabetic kidney disease.

112. Psychodynamic therapies versus treatment as usual for depression.

113. Psychological therapies delivered remotely for the management of chronic pain (excluding headache) in adults.

114. Reflexology for treatment of constipation.

115. S‐adenosyl‐L‐methionine for people with alcoholic liver disease.

116. Saffron (adjunct) for people with schizophrenia who have antipsychotic‐induced metabolic syndrome.

117. Selenium supplementation during pregnancy for improving maternal and newborn outcomes.

118. Singing for people with Parkinson's disease.

119. Spiritual and religious interventions for adults with cancer and their carers: an overview of systematic reviews.

120. Synbiotics, prebiotics and probiotics for people with chronic kidney disease.

121. Synbiotics, prebiotics and probiotics for solid organ transplant recipients.

122. Tai Chi for hypertension.

123. Tai Chi for improving recovery after stroke.

124. Tai chi for schizophrenia.

125. Tai Chi plus standard care versus other exercise plus standard care for people with schizophrenia or related disorders.

126. Topical herbal interventions for gingivitis.

127. Topical, light‐based, and complementary interventions for acne: an overview of systematic reviews.

128. Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs for condyloma acuminatum.

129. Transcranial laser therapy for acute ischemic stroke.

130. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for chronic low‐back pain.

131. Vegan diet for adults with overweight or obesity.

132. Vitamin A for preventing acute lower respiratory tract infections in children up to seven years of age.

133. Vitamin A supplementation for prevention of mortality and morbidity in moderate and late preterm infants.

134. Vitamin and mineral supplementation for maintaining cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in mid life.

135. Vitamin B12 supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and child health outcomes.

136. Vitamin D for preventing acute respiratory infections in children up to five years of age.

137. Vitamin D for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

138. Vitamin D for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

139. Vitamin D with or without calcium for treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

140. Vitamin E for people with non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease.

141. Vitamin K for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in post‐menopausal women.

142. Yoga for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee.

143. Yoga for schizophrenia.

144. Zinc for prevention and treatment of the common cold.